Another way Haidt points out that we know morality is not necessarily a rational process is from his own experiments where people were given scenarios that trigger taboos but in which no one is hurt and no one outside of the main protagonists in the stories even know what happened.
Subjects were asked if the individuals in the stories were wrong to do what they did, and then pressed for reasons why. It was clear that most people were inventing reasons to justify their reactions. Even if they couldn’t give a good reason, they still stuck with their initial judgment.
It’s a pretty good demonstration that we’ve evolved to condemn certain behaviors, even if we can’t explain why, and even when those behaviors aren’t hurting anyone. Judgment and justification are separate processes.
Further, Haidt goes on to assert that moral reasoning is not about reconstructing our own conclusions, but rather “we reason to find the best possible reasons why somebody else ought to join us in our judgment.” (p. 52)
So, then, if our moral decision making is subconscious and automatic, why does our rational, conscious mind bother crafting post hoc justifications for what we believe? Haidt refers to our rational minds as a press secretary. Why bother with the post hoc reasoning, since we aren’t going to change anyone else’s mind?
Partly, it serves a social function. Reason itself isn’t very effective for changing minds, but it can reinforce our beliefs and the beliefs of other, like-minded individuals. It feels good when someone comes up with a killer argument in favor of what we believe, and that creates social bonds.
It’s also true that we do sometimes change our positions, particularly in response to people who we like or admire assuming a contrary position. Our rational brains help us rationalize the reasons why we change our views, when really we changed them due to social pressure.
Also, to be clear, it is also possible to change your own position based on logical reasoning, and we clearly sometimes do. As Haidt notes, it just doesn’t happen very often.
Haidt did some research early in his career to ascertain whether increased cognitive load would interfere with making decisions in situations that involve applying morality or ethics. The idea here is that if morality is controlled by automatic processes instead of rational ones, then cognitive load shouldn’t matter.
And, indeed, that’s what he found. Moral judgement is fast and automated. It doesn’t depend on the rational mind.
Haidt, early in The Righteous Mind, shares the work of Antonio Damasio, a neuroscientist who noticed that people with a particular brain injury in the prefrontal cortex felt almost no emotions but retained complete ability to reason (no drop in IQ) and to discriminate between right and wrong. These individuals could reason just fine–but they couldn’t make decisions. And when they did, they were often poor ones. Their lives began falling apart.
Every single decision had to be based on rationally considering all the options. This is a nightmare for working memory, and I imagine exhausting, leading to poor decisions.
This is interesting evidence that our rational brains don’t have as much control as we think they do. We depend on emotions.
I’m reading The Righteous Mind: Why Good People Are Divided by Politics and Religion by Jonathan Haidt. I loved, loved, loved his earlier book The Happiness Hypothesis, so I’m going to go off topic on this web journal for a while and instead use it as a place to think about Haidt’s ideas.
Haidt’s default political perspective, and he’s up front about this, is liberal atheist. One of the things I enjoy about him as an author is that he’s interested in the research base even when it doesn’t support his intuitions. He seeks disconfirming evidence!
It was interesting to read in his introduction that the word liberal has a different meaning here in the states than it does in Europe, where the meaning is closer to libertarian. Liberal here maps more cleanly to progressive in Europe.
Elevator buttons are near the elevator doors. Everyone knows that.
Not at the Hyatt O’Hare! At least, not all of the buttons:
Some of the rooms at the Hyatt are tucked away so you have to walk down a couple of hallways and then take an elevator up. The elevators are down one of the hallways. Halfway down the hall is an elevator call button, perfectly calibrated, it seems, to give you just enough time to get down the hallway and walk into an elevator without breaking stride.
I’m sure it doesn’t always work perfectly, but when I was there, it seemed to work whether there was already an idle elevator already on that floor (where you’d walk into the elevator just before the doors closed) or whether one had to be summoned from another floor (where the doors would open just as you got there). Elegant design.
Former Minnesota Teacher of the Year released a book last year called It Won’t Be Easy. It’s a wonderful read; funny and thought provoking. I’ve captured some of my favorite quotes as I read:
“Answers don’t make great teachers, questions do.” p. 9
“Teaching is hard, and one of the hardest things about it is that it never gets easy.” p. 9
“There is no right way to be a teacher except authentic…. There’s no way for you to do it right except the way you do it.”
“Your students will know fewer things because you taught them so many.” p. 59
“Teaching is like putting together a puzzle without all the pieces on a table that is too small. Also, the puzzle is on fire.” p. 87
“When students come to me complaining about the things in school that drive them nuts, the garbage that stands between them and the school they deserve, I do my best to give them the tools to change what they can without telling them why or what they should change. Basically, and radically, I talk to them like they are real people actual people who can make decisions and stuff. Also, I have a lot of faith in young people right now, and they have a lot of work to do to make things better in the world they’re building for themselves, and school is a great place to practice.” p. 133
“I think my system [no due dates] works for kids. I grade them on what they’re able to do so their grade reflects their skill in my class, not their ability to organize themselves or follow due dates.” p. 152